The course was held at WIV-ISP in Brussels. There were 30 participants which is the ideal number for full participation in a course with practical exercises. The morning session, chaired by Francesca Tencalla (ToxMinds), started with an short introduction to the endocrine system by Mark Martens (MMTA) followed by a lecture on human disorders and challenges of endocrine modulation by Jean-Pierre Bourguignon (ULg). Hilda Witters (VITO) and Marie-Noëlle Blaude (WIV-ISP) gave an overview of in vitro and in vivo test methods for the screening of endocrine disruptors (ED). Ecotoxicology testing of EDs was given by Francesca Tencalla (ToxMinds) while Peter Hoet (KULeuven) critically reviewed low dose effects and non-monotonous dose-effect relationships of EDs. In the afternoon session, chaired by Marie-Noëlle Blaude (WIV-ISP), an overview of the regulatory aspects of endocrine disruption in the EU was given by Ruth Moeller (LIST) followed by a practical exercise on the health and environmental effects of EDs using real but blinded experimental data from two well documented EDs. The practical exercise was led by Marie-Noëlle Blaude, Mark Martens and Francesca Tencalla. The feedback was positive to very positive for as well the structure as the content of the course. The course was considered to be very complete and touching upon all aspects of endocrine disruption (medical, experimental, regulatory). The practical exercises in the afternoon were very much appreciated and helped the attendants to apply and integrate the knowledge gathered during the morning session. From the feedback forms it could be derived that there is a great need for more training in reproductive toxicology (as a basis to better understand mechanisms of endocrine disruption and what they mean for human health). Therefore, the SC agreed at its last meeting of 2016 to organize in 2017 an advanced toxicology course on reproduction. Since it will be impossible to cover all aspects of reproduction toxicology in one day it was agreed to concentrate first on embryo-fetal developmetal toxicity in the course of 2017. Other aspects of reproduction toxicology such as fertility and juvenile development can be treated in later advances courses.

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